THE IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE SYSTEM SUPPORTING MATERIALS
The following resources are either existing products that were applied during the Implementation Science Initiative (ISI) or developed as intermediate products during ISI and were helpful in capacity-building with the local implementers at various stages in the initiative. We share them here as some readers may find them useful to adapt for their own work and context.
Brief on ISI and its 6 components
To illustrate the initiative and the 6 components as envisioned early in the initiative and the critical activities for each of them.
- During the planning phase ISI was envisioned to have 6 components. These 6 components were operationalized and they evolved throughout the experience. The final ISS system operational model has 5 components.
- The sixth component (documentation) was included in the original design because ISI was a learning initiative and therefore this component was key. Even though this component is not found in the final model, documenting the implementation experience remains important and insightful.
*This resource corresponds to the whole ISS operational model
Bottleneck Assessment and Bottleneck Solutions Inventory: A Guidance Note for Country Teams
The bottleneck solutions inventory (BSI) is a tool to ensure that the inquiry approach is a holistic and continuous problem-solving approach and that actions are taken to ensure the uptake of knowledge by decision makers.
- Carrying out the bottleneck assessment (BNA) was relatively straightforward as countries used the PAG for guidance. However, the creation and use of the BSI was more complex.
- It was difficult to identify and implement appropriate actions based on the bottleneck assessment alone. The BSI was created to give greater attention to this aspect, such that the BNA and BSI became two distinct parts in the final operational model for an IS system.
*This resource corresponds to BNA and BSI
Brief on focused ethnographic study
To describe a methodology – focused ethnographic study – that had great potential to be used in the studies in Kenya and Uganda, but that required some adaptation (i.e. the creation of a set of modules to study IFAS in the context of ANC.)
- Adapting the methodology of FES (that originally was developed for IYCF) required developing a set of modules to study IFAS in the context of ANC. In turn, this required carrying out a literature review to develop the modules and a conceptual framework.
- The COVID-19 pandemic did not allow us to collect data so instead we examined how existing literature might be used to strengthen FES interview guides as well as address some bottlenecks by using current global knowledge and experience. These experiences led to the development of the ScoRe guide.
Brief on effectiveness-implementation hybrid design
To describe the effectiveness-implementation hybrid design as a highly relevant option in the context of IS.
- We explored the possibility of using a hybrid design in ISI but decided it was not appropriate for our purposes.
- Nonetheless, we developed this brief to call attention to this design option in other contexts.
- Our experiences highlighted the valuable role that knowledge brokers can play in helping IS teams carefully consider the most appropriate inquiry methods given their purposes and contexts.
*This resource corresponds to the Contextual IR
Knowledge Brokering: A Guidance Note for Country Teams
To help country teams develop and implement their KB strategy, which is a transversal component at the center of ISI because various forms of knowledge facilitation are likely to be needed regarding each of the other components.
- Although we envisioned having a knowledge brokering team in each country, there was one key person, the project manager, who played the primary role of the knowledge broker.
- This person was supported by other members of the team whenever needed, but the role of project manager/knowledge broker was central.
*This resource corresponds to Knowledge Broker
This report aggregates in one place a number of documents created for the initiative to-date, for future use by SISN in strengthening IS capacity in other settings, and presents insights that feed into the prospective documentation of experiences.
- Prior to carrying out this workshop, we did not have guidance materials. Thus, all the guidance notes were developed for building capacity and sharing SISN’s vision of various components of the initiative.
- Carrying out a workshop to build capacity on IS was very helpful. In future initiatives, the operational model for an IS system could serve as the foundation to build capacity on IS/IR.
Theory of Change: A Guidance Note for Country Teams
To present how to develop a ToC, and more specifically an implementation ToC, to help make explicit how an intervention is expected to lead to specific outcomes.
- This document was prepared based on the literature and in response to the experiences and challenges expressed by the country core teams during the proposal writing process, in the early stage of the initiative.
- Although the operational model for an IS system does not specifically recommend developing a ToC, we did use a ToC at different times during program implementation.
- Michaud-Létourneau I, Gayard M, Njoroge B, Agabiirwe CN, Luwangula AK, McGough L et al. Operationalizing Implementation Science in Nutrition: The Implementation Science Initiative in Kenya and Uganda, Current Developments in Nutrition (2022) 6(1) nzab146
- Tumilowicz A, Ruel MT, Pelto G, Pelletier D, Monterrosa EC, Lapping K et al Implementation Science in Nutrition: Concepts and Frameworks for an Emerging Field of Science and Practice (2019) Current Developments in Nutrition 3 (3) nzy080
- Warren AM, Frongillo EA, Rawat R. Building Implementation Science in Nutrition, (2020) Advances in Nutrition, nmaa066.
- Pelto GH, Thuita FM, Macharia-Mutie C. Focused Ethnographic Studies of Infant and Young Child Feeding Behaviours, Beliefs, Contexts, and Environments in Vihiga, Kitui, Isiolo, Marsabit, and Turkana Counties in Kenya. USAID and GAIN, May 2016
- The Implementation Science Initiative: Identifying and Addressing Bottlenecks within Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation Programs in Kenya and Uganda, April 2019
- The Consortium of Universities for Global Health Webinar on Implementation Science in Nutrition, June 2019
- Improving Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation Through Quality Improvement: A Type III Effectiveness-implementation Hybrid Study, December 2019
- A focused ethnographic study: investigating the barriers to antenatal care attendance to improve iron and folic acid supplementation in Kenya, February 2020